SUPPLEMENT/MEDICATION /COMPOUND NAME: Garlic (allicin).

USE: gTest-tube study found that the various components of garlic are virucidal or virustatic to herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human rhinovirus type 2. PMID:1470664 SOURCE

POTENTIAL BENEFIT: Potential general anti-viral effect. Potential aid in treating secondary bacterial pneumonia, Anti-inflammatory effects.

SUPPORTING RESEARCH: Anecdotal suggestions of anti-viral properties. No specific research vs. Influenza A. Anecdotal suggestion of palliative function in pneumonia.

(1)Three of the odorous sulfur compounds in garlic were tested to determine how they affected cytokine levels in blood cells exposed to LPS (a bacterial compound that stimulates cytokines). Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) all reduced the TNF response, although AMS did so only slightly. DAS also inhibited the inflammatory IL-1 beta, IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory IL-10. DADS reduced production of IL-10 and IL-6. AMS increased IL-10 levels. PMID:15796590

(2) Allicin (another compound in garlic) has been proven to reduce a component of the cytokine storm. In a 4-way in vitro experiment, cells were either pretreated with allicin (or not) and then exposed to TNF (or not). The levels of several inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IP-10 and MIG) were then measured. Cytokines levels were elevated in cells exposed to TNF, but much less so if the cells were pre-treated with allicin. In the 2 groups of cells that were not exposed to TNF, those pretreated with allicin also had lower cytokine levels compared to those which were not garlicized. PMID:15380914

(3) Alexander Orekhov, PhD, Director of the Institute for Atherosclerosis Research in Moscow, Russia, reported on a series of studies that were performed to elucidate the effect of time-released garlic powder tablets in the prevention of acute respiratory disease (ARD). (The report was presented jointly with Dr. Sobenin.) At the first stage, the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of tablets was investigated in an open-labeled 5-month study in schoolchildren aged 7–16. It has been shown that ARD morbidity (including influenza) was reduced 2.4-fold as compared to the controls. At the second stage, the effects of garlic tablets on ARD morbidity versus placebo or benzimidazole (a pharmaceutical drug) were investigated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 5-month comparative study in school children aged 10–12. Research has demonstrated that garlic tablets (Allicor®) reduced ARD morbidity by 2.4-fold as compared to placebo, and by 1.7-fold as compared to benzimidazole. The results of this phase of investigation have demonstrated that garlic powder tablets are effective in non-specific prevention of ARD in children and possess no adverse side effects. Time-released garlic powder tablets (Allicor) are highly recommended for long-term prevention of ARD, especially in health care programs, as an effective, low-cost and safe approach to the improvement of innate immunity and resistance to viral infections. http://www.herbalgram.org/youngliving/herbalgram/articleview.asp?a=3049

Effect of long-acting garlic tablets “allicor” on the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections in children
[Article in Russian] Andrianova IV, Sobenin IA, Sereda EV, Borodina LI, Studenikin MI. Ter Arkh. 2003;75(3):53–6.
AIM: To elucidate the prospects administration of allicor (long-releasing garlic tablets) in prevention of acute respiratory diseases (ARD) in children vs benzimidazole (dibazole). MATERIAL AND METHODS: At the first stage, tolerance of allicor (600 mg/day) and its effects on ARD morbidity were investigated in an opened 5-month study in 172 children aged 7–16 years compared to 468 controls. As the second stage, the effects of allicor (300 mg/day) on ASRD morbidity were investigated in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized 5-month trial in 42 children aged 10–12 years in comparison with 41 placebo-treated children and 73 benzimidazole-treated children. RESULTS: At the first stage of the study allicor was not observed to induce gastrointestinal side effects in children at any dosage while ARD morbidity was reduced 2–4-fold as compared to the controls. At the second stage of the study allicor reduced ARD morbidity 1.7-fold compared to placebo and 2.4-fold vs benzimidazole. There was no significant difference in ARD morbidity between placebo- and benzimidazole-treated groups. Health index in allicor-treated group was 1.5-fold higher as compared either to placebo- or benzimidazole-treated children. CONCLUSION: Thus, the results of this study have demonstrated that allicor is effective for non-specific prevention of acute respiratory infections in children and has no side effects. ARD prevention with benzimidazole appeared ineffective in placebo-controlled study, so the development of new useful and safe preparations is of ultimate importance. Publication Types: Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial PMID: 12718222

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/garlic/ Aged Garlic has lower amounts of allicin and alliin. Avoid odor controlled. Get enteric instead.

http://content.nhiondemand.com/moh/media/monoHerb.asp?objID=100058&ctype=ds&mtyp=1 Raw garlic is more potent than cooked garlic, because heat inactivates the enzyme allinase. Allinase gives garlic its odor and stimulates the formation of allicin. There are odorless garlic preparations, which provide alliin, a precursor to allicin. Alliin is converted (to some extent) to allicin in the body and allows for activity without the characteristic scent. Ethnocultural studies have shown that cultures with a high garlic intake have an inverse relationship to their cultures’ cancer rates.(4)

Garlic is reported to stimulate immunity, including macrophage activity, natural killer and killer cells, and LAK cells, and to increase the production of IL-2, TNF, and interferon-gamma. Garlic and its components have been reported active against various cancers in vitro, including cancerous cell lines from the human bladder,(45) certain hepatic cells lines,(46) some breast cancer cell lines,(47, 48) prostate,(49) and some colorectal and stomach cancers(50, 51, 52) among others.

Recommending a quality garlic supplement is essential, and enteric coating may be advantageous. Of further note, as reported in a few laboratory studies, is the potential for large amounts of allicin to damage liver tissue if absorbed due to its oxidative potential.(64, 65) However, there are positive studies while using high quality garlic preparations standardized to allicin potential without reported adverse effects.

http://www.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/131/3/955S Intake of Garlic and Its Bioactive Components

http://www.mskcc.org/mskcc/html/11571.cfm?RecordID=412&tab=HC Most authorities agree that the best measure of the total activity of garlic is its ability to produce allicin, which, in turn, results in the formation of other active principles (3). Preparation of garlic, such as heating, microwaving, or drying, can substantially reduce the allyl sulfur compounds (allicin and alliin). Crushed raw garlic is highest in these components.

http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/herbaldrugs/101190.shtml Clinical trials of Garlic tablets and oil have yielded confusing and conflicting results. Some researchers have found that doses of 900 milligrams a day significantly lower both total cholesterol and “bad” LDL cholesterol. Others have tested the same dosage and observed no improvement. Nevertheless, a majority of experts now agree that the herb does have a cholesterol-lowering effect which, in turn, fights hardening of the arteries. It also acts as a mild blood-thinner, an antioxidant, and an immune-system booster.

Much of the confusion over Garlic may arise from a lack of standardization in commercial products. Allicin, the active ingredient in Garlic, is strongest in the fresh herb (and is inactivated by cooking). In over-the-counter preparations, its strength varies widely.

LINK:In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds

CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS Frequently reported adverse events include bad breath, headache, fatigue, GI upset, diarrhea, sweating, and possible hypoglycemia.

Because garlic is known to decrease platelet aggregation and potentially elevate the INR, it should not be used with anticoagulants or in patients with platelet dysfunction. Garlic appears to induce cytochrome p450 3A4 and may enhance metabolism of many medications (e.g. cyclosporin and saquinavir).

Reported (Oral): Headache, fatigue, altered platelet function with potential for bleeding, offensive odor, GI upset, diarrhea, sweating, changes in the intestinal flora, hypoglycemia

Case Report (Oral): Prolonged bleeding time with spinal epidural hematoma and platelet dysfunction has occurred following excessive usage of garlic.

Reported (Topical): Contact dermatitis

Discontinue use of garlic at least 7 days prior to surgery.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Insulin: Dose of insulin may require adjustment due to hypoglycemia effects of garlic. Warfarin: Anticoagulant activity may be enhanced due to increased fibrinolytic activity and diminished human platelet aggregation. Cytochrome P450 3A4: Garlic may cause induction of the 3A4 isoenzyme resulting in enhanced metabolism of certain drugs. Cyclosporine: Effectiveness might be decreased by garlicfs ability to induce metabolism and decrease levels of drugs like cyclosporine which are substrates of cytochrome P450 3A4. It can potentially cause transplant rejection (11). Saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase): Consuming garlic can significantly decrease serum concentration levels. Garlic can decrease peak levels by 54% and mean trough levels by 49%. These reductions in levels can cause therapeutic failure and increase development. It is suspected that garlic induces cytochrome P450 metabolism of saquinavir. Patients taking other protease inhibitors may be affected; however, only saquinavir interaction has been reported (12) [SLOAN + PDR INSERT LINK]

NOTE Preparation of garlic, such as heating, microwaving, or drying, can substantially reduce the allyl sulfur compounds (allicin and alliin). Crushed raw garlic is highest in these components. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is well absorbed after oral administration and can be detected in the plasma, liver, and kidney. It is metabolized to N-acetyl-SAC and excreted in the urine. Allicin has not been detected in the bloodstream and is thought to undergo extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism. Allinase, required to convert alliin to allicin, is acid-labile.

FOOD OR SUPPLEMENT CONTAINED IN: Dietary sources of garlic, excluding common powdered forms of garlic. Food supplements named gGarlich.

DOSAGE: The usual daily oral dosage is 4 grams (approximately three-quarters teaspoonful) of fresh Garlic or 8 milligrams of Garlic oil

WHERE FROM: Health food stores, dietary sources.

Garlic on HerbMedPro efficacy, evidence of activity, and safety.

Page last modified on November 14, 2006, at 02:07 AM by fredness