42 U.S.C. §§243, 264 – 268 (2001) Public Health Service Act
Sec 243 General grant of authority for cooperation
(a) Enforcement of quarantine regulations; prevention of communicable diseases
The Secretary [of Health & Human Services] is authorized to accept from State and local authorities any assistance in the enforcement of quarantine regulations made pursuant to this chapter which such authorities may be able and willing to provide. The Secretary shall also assist States and their political subdivisions in the prevention and suppression of communicable diseases and with respect to other public health matters, shall cooperate with and aid State and local authorities in the enforcement of their quarantine and other health regulations, and shall advise the several States on matters relating to the preservation and improvement of the public health.
(b) Comprehensive and continuing planning; training of personnel for State and local health work; fees
The Secretary shall encourage cooperative activities between the States with respect to comprehensive and continuing planning as to their current and future health needs, the establishment and maintenance of adequate public health services, and otherwise carrying out public health activities. The Secretary is also authorized to train personnel for State and local health work. The Secretary may charge only private entities reasonable fees for the training of their personnel under the preceding sentence.
(c) Development of plan to control epidemics and meet emergencies or problems resulting from disasters; cooperative planning; temporary assistance; reimbursement of United States
(1) The Secretary is authorized to develop (and may take such action as may be necessary to implement) a plan under which personnel, equipment, medical supplies, and other resources of the Service and other agencies under the jurisdiction of the Secretary may be effectively used to control epidemics of any disease or condition and to meet other health emergencies or problems. The Secretary may enter into agreements providing for the cooperative planning between the Service and public and private community health programs and agencies to cope with health problems (including epidemics and health emergencies).
(2) The Secretary may, at the request of the appropriate State or local authority, extend temporary (not in excess of six months) assistance to States or localities in meeting health emergencies of such a nature as to warrant Federal assistance. The Secretary may require such reimbursement of the United States for assistance provided under this paragraph as he may determine to be reasonable under the circumstances. Any reimbursement so paid shall be credited to the applicable appropriation for the Service for the year in which such reimbursement is received.
Section 264 Regulations to control communicable diseases
(a) Promulgation and enforcement by Surgeon General
The Surgeon General, with the approval of the Secretary, is authorized to make and enforce such regulations as in his judgment are necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases from foreign countries into the States or possessions, or from one State or possession into any other State or possession. For purposes of carrying out and enforcing such regulations, the Surgeon General may provide for such inspection, fumigation, disinfection, sanitation, pest extermination, destruction of animals or articles found to be so infected or contaminated as to be sources of dangerous infection to human beings, and other measures, as in his judgment may be necessary.
(b) Apprehension, detention, or conditional release of individuals
Regulations prescribed under this section shall not provide for the apprehension, detention, or conditional release of individuals except for the purpose of preventing the introduction, transmission, or spread of such communicable diseases as may be specified from time to time in Executive orders of the President upon the recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council and the Surgeon General.
(c) Application of regulations to persons entering from foreign countries
Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, regulations prescribed under this section, insofar as they provide for the apprehension, detention, examination, or conditional release of individuals, shall be applicable only to individuals coming into a State or possession from a foreign country or a possession.
(d) Apprehension and examination of persons reasonably believed to be infected
On recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council, regulations prescribed under this section may provide for the apprehension and examination of any individual reasonably believed to be infected with a communicable disease in a communicable stage and (1) to be moving or about to move from a State to another State; or (2) to be a probable source of infection to individuals who, while infected with such disease in a communicable stage, will be moving from a State to another State. Such regulations may provide that if upon examination any such individual is found to be infected, he may be detained for such time and in such manner as may be reasonably necessary. For purposes of this subsection, the term State includes, in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia.
Section 265 Suspension of entries and imports from designated places to prevent spread of communicable diseases
Whenever the Surgeon General determines that by reason of the existence of any communicable disease in a foreign country there is serious danger of the introduction of such disease into the United States, and that this danger is so increased by the introduction of persons or property from such country that a suspension of the right to introduce such persons and property is required in the interest of the public health, the Surgeon General, in accordance with regulations approved by the President, shall have the power to prohibit, in whole or in part, the introduction of persons and property from such countries or places as he shall designate in order to avert such danger, and for such period of time as he may deem necessary for such purpose.
Section 266 Special quarantine powers in time of war
To protect the military and naval forces and war workers of the United States, in time of war, against any communicable disease specified in Executive orders as provided in subsection (b) of section 264 of this title, the Surgeon General, on recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council, is authorized to provide by regulations for the apprehension and examination, in time of war, of any individual reasonably believed (1) to be infected with such disease in a communicable stage and (2) to be a probable source of infection to members of the armed forces of the United States or to individuals engaged in the production or transportation of arms, munitions, ships, food, clothing, or other supplies for the armed forces. Such regulations may provide that if upon examination any such individual is found to be so infected, he may be detained for such time and in such manner as may be reasonably necessary.
Section 267 Quarantine stations, grounds, and anchorages
(a) Control and management
Except as provided in title II of the Act of June 15, 1917, as amended (50 U.S.C. 191 et seq.), the Surgeon General shall control, direct, and manage all United States quarantine stations, grounds, and anchorages, designate their boundaries, and designate the quarantine officers to be in charge thereof. With the approval of the President he shall from time to time select suitable sites for and establish such additional stations, grounds, and anchorages in the States and possessions of the United States as in his judgment are necessary to prevent the introduction of communicable diseases into the States and possessions of the United States.
(b) Hours of inspection
The Surgeon General shall establish the hours during which quarantine service shall be performed at each quarantine station, and, upon application by any interested party, may establish quarantine inspection during the twenty-four hours of the day, or any fraction thereof, at such quarantine stations as, in his opinion, require such extended service. He may restrict the performance of quarantine inspection to hours of daylight for such arriving vessels as cannot, in his opinion, be satisfactorily inspected during hours of darkness. No vessel shall be required to undergo quarantine inspection during the hours of darkness, unless the quarantine officer at such quarantine station shall deem an immediate inspection necessary to protect the public health. Uniformity shall not be required in the hours during which quarantine inspection may be obtained at the various ports of the United States.
(c) Overtime pay for employees of Service
The Surgeon General shall fix a reasonable rate of extra compensation for overtime services of employees of the United States Public Health Service, Foreign Quarantine Division, performing overtime duties including the operation of vessels, in connection with the inspection or quarantine treatment of persons (passengers and crews), conveyances, or goods arriving by land, water, or air in the United States or any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, hereinafter referred to as employees of the Public Health Service, when required to be on duty between the hours of 6 o’clock postmeridian and 6 o’clock antemeridian (or between the hours of 7 o’clock postmeridian and 7 o’clock antemeridian at stations which have a declared workday of from 7 o’clock antemeridian to 7 o’clock postmeridian), or on Sundays or holidays, such rate, in lieu of compensation under any other provision of law, to be fixed at two times the basic hourly rate for each hour that the overtime extends beyond 6 o’clock (or 7 o’clock as the case may be) postmeridian, and two times the basic hourly rate for each overtime hour worked on Sundays or holidays. As used in this subsection, the term basic hourly rate shall mean the regular basic rate of pay which is applicable to such employees for work performed within their regular scheduled tour of duty.
(d) Payment of extra compensation to United States; bond or deposit to assure payment; deposit of moneys to credit of appropriation
(1) The said extra compensation shall be paid to the United States by the owner, agent, consignee, operator, or master or other person in charge of any conveyance, for whom, at his request, services as described in this subsection (hereinafter referred to as overtime service) are performed. If such employees have been ordered to report for duty and have so reported, and the requested services are not performed by reason of circumstances beyond the control of the employees concerned, such extra compensation shall be paid on the same basis as though the overtime services had actually been performed during the period between the time the employees were ordered to report for duty and did so report, and the time they were notified that their services would not be required, and in any case as though their services had continued for not less than one hour. The Surgeon General with the approval of the Secretary of Health and Human Services may prescribe regulations requiring the owner, agent, consignee, operator, or master or other person for whom the overtime services are performed to file a bond in such amounts and containing such conditions and with such sureties, or in lieu of a bond, to deposit money or obligations of the United States in such amount, as will assure the payment of charges under this subsection, which bond or deposit may cover one or more transactions or all transactions during a specified period: Provided, That no charges shall be made for services performed in connection with the inspection of (1) persons arriving by international highways, ferries, bridges, or tunnels, or the conveyances in which they arrive, or (2) persons arriving by aircraft or railroad trains, the operations of which are covered by published schedules, or the aircraft or trains in which they arrive, or (3) persons arriving by vessels operated between Canadian ports and ports on Puget Sound or operated on the Great Lakes and connecting waterways, the operations of which are covered by published schedules, or the vessels in which they arrive. (2) Moneys collected under this subsection shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States to the credit of the appropriation charged with the expense of the services, and the appropriations so credited shall be available for the payment of such compensation to the said employees for services so rendered.
Section 268 Quarantine duties of consular and other officers
(a) Any consular or medical officer of the United States, designated for such purpose by the Secretary, shall make reports to the Surgeon General, on such forms and at such intervals as the Surgeon General may prescribe, of the health conditions at the port or place at which such officer is stationed.
(b) It shall be the duty of the customs officers and of Coast Guard officers to aid in the enforcement of quarantine rules and regulations; but no additional compensation, except actual and necessary traveling expenses, shall be allowed any such officer by reason of such services.
Section 269 Bills of health
(a) Detail of medical officer; conditions precedent to issuance; consular officer to receive fees
Except as otherwise prescribed in regulations, any vessel at any foreign port or place clearing or departing for any port or place in a State or possession shall be required to obtain from the consular officer of the United States or from the Public Health Service officer, or other medical officer of the United States designated by the Surgeon General, at the port or place of departure, a bill of health in duplicate, in the form prescribed by the Surgeon General. The President, from time to time, shall specify the ports at which a medical officer shall be stationed for this purpose. Such bill of health shall set forth the sanitary history and condition of said vessel, and shall state that it has in all respects complied with the regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection © of this section. Before granting such duplicate bill of health, such consular or medical officer shall be satisfied that the matters and things therein stated are true. The consular officer shall be entitled to demand and receive the fees for bills of health and such fees shall be established by regulation. (b) Collectors of customs to receive originals; duplicate copies as part of ship’s papers Original bills of health shall be delivered to the collectors of customs at the port of entry. copies of such bills of health shall be delivered at the time of inspection to quarantine officers at such port. The bills of health herein prescribed shall be considered as part of the ship’s papers, and when duly certified to by the proper consular or other officer of the United States, over his official signature and seal, shall be accepted as evidence of the statements therein contained in any court of the United States. © Regulations to secure sanitary conditions of vessels The Surgeon General shall from time to time prescribe regulations, applicable to vessels referred to in subsection (a) of this section for the purpose of preventing the introduction into the States or possessions of the United States of any communicable disease by securing the best sanitary condition of such vessels, their cargoes, passengers, and crews. Such regulations shall be observed by such vessels prior to departure, during the course of the voyage, and also during inspection, disinfection, or other quarantine procedure upon arrival at any United States quarantine station. (d) Vessels from ports near frontier The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to vessels plying between such foreign ports on or near the frontiers of the United States and ports of the United States as are designated by treaty. (e) Compliance with regulations It shall be unlawful for any vessel to enter any port in any State or possession of the United States to discharge its cargo, or land its passengers, except upon a certificate of the quarantine officer that regulations prescribed under subsection © of this section have in all respects been complied with by such officer, the vessel, and its master. The master of every such vessel shall deliver such certificate to the collector of customs at the port of entry, together with the original bill of health and other papers of the vessel. The certificate required by this subsection shall be procurable from the quarantine officer, upon arrival of the vessel at the quarantine station and satisfactory inspection thereof, at any time within which quarantine services are performed at such station.
Section 270 Quarantine regulations governing civil air navigation and civil aircraft
The Surgeon General is authorized to provide by regulations for the application to air navigation and aircraft of any of the provisions of sections 267 to 269 of this title and regulations prescribed thereunder (including penalties and forfeitures for violations of such sections and regulations), to such extent and upon such conditions as he deems necessary for the safeguarding of the public health.
Section 271 Penalties for violation of quarantine laws
(a) Penalties for persons violating quarantine laws
Any person who violates any regulation prescribed under sections 264 to 266 of this title, or any provision of section 269 of this title or any regulation prescribed thereunder, or who enters or departs from the limits of any quarantine station, ground, or anchorage in disregard of quarantine rules and regulations or without permission of the quarantine officer in charge, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $1,000 or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.
(b) Penalties for vessels violating quarantine laws
Any vessel which violates section 269 of this title, or any regulations thereunder or under section 267 of this title, or which enters within or departs from the limits of any quarantine station, ground, or anchorage in disregard of the quarantine rules and regulations or without permission of the officer in charge, shall forfeit to the United States not more than $5,000, the amount to be determined by the court, which shall be a lien on such vessel, to be recovered by proceedings in the proper district court of the United States. In all such proceedings the United States attorney shall appear on behalf of the United States; and all such proceedings shall be conducted in accordance with the rules and laws governing cases of seizure of vessels for violation of the revenue laws of the United States.
(c) Remittance or mitigation of forfeitures
With the approval of the Secretary, the Surgeon General may, upon application therefor, remit or mitigate any forfeiture provided for under subsection (b) of this section, and he shall have authority to ascertain the facts upon all such applications.
Section 272 Administration of oaths by quarantine officers Medical officers of the United States, when performing duties as quarantine officers at any port or place within the United States, are authorized to take declarations and administer oaths in matters pertaining to the administration of the quarantine laws and regulations of the United States.
Pub. L. 107–188 Section 264.
Sec. 142 Streamlining and Clarifying Communicable Disease Quarantine Provisions
(a) ELIMINATION OF PREREQUISITE FOR NATIONAL ADVISORY HEALTH COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION BEFORE ISSUING QUARANTINE RULES-
(1) EXECUTIVE ORDERS SPECIFYING DISEASES SUBJECT TO INDIVIDUAL DETENTIONS- Section 361(b) of the Public Health Act (42 U.S.C. 264(b)) is amended by striking Executive orders of the President upon the recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council and the Surgeon General’ and inserting Executive orders of the President upon the recommendation of the Secretary, in consultation with the Surgeon General,’.
(2) REGULATIONS PROVIDING FOR APPREHENSION OF INDIVIDUALS- Section 361(d) of the Public Health Act (42 U.S.C. 264(d)) is amended by striking On recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council, regulations’ and inserting Regulations’.
(3) REGULATIONS PROVIDING FOR APPREHENSION OF INDIVIDUALS IN WARTIME- Section 363 of the Public Health Act (42 U.S.C. 266) is amended by striking `the Surgeon General, on recommendation of the National Advisory Health Council,’ and inserting `the Secretary, in consultation with the Surgeon General,’.
(b) APPREHENSION AUTHORITY TO APPLY IN CASES OF EXPOSURE TO DISEASE-
(1) REGULATIONS PROVIDING FOR APPREHENSION OF INDIVIDUALS- Section 361(d) of the Public Health Act (42 U.S.C. 264(d)), as amended by subsection (a)(2), is further amended—
(A) by striking `(1)’ and `(2)’ and inserting `(A)’ and `(B)’, respectively;
(B) by striking `(d)’ and inserting `(d)(1)’;
© in paragraph (1) (as designated by subparagraph (B) of this paragraph), in the first sentence, by striking `in a communicable stage’ each place such term appears and inserting `in a qualifying stage’; and
(D) by adding at the end the following paragraph: `(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term `qualifying stage’, with respect to a communicable disease, means that such disease— `(A) is in a communicable stage; or `(B) is in a precommunicable stage, if the disease would be likely to cause a public health emergency if transmitted to other individuals.’.
(2) REGULATIONS PROVIDING FOR APPREHENSION OF INDIVIDUALS IN WARTIME- Section 363 of the Public Health Act (42 U.S.C. 266), as amended by subsection (a)(3), is further amended by striking `in a communicable stage’.
(c) STATE AUTHORITY- Section 361 of the Public Health Act (42 U.S.C. 264) is amended by adding at the end the following: `(e) Nothing in this section or section 363, or the regulations promulgated under such sections, may be construed as superseding any provision under State law (including regulations and including provisions established by political subdivisions of States), except to the extent that such a provision conflicts with an exercise of Federal authority under this section or section 363.’.
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